Dandruff is sometimes caused by frequent exposure to extreme heat and cold. As it is normal for skin cells to die and flake off, a small amount of flaking is normal and common.
Some people, however, either chronically or as a result of certain triggers, experience an unusually large amount of flaking, which can also be accompanied by redness and irritation. Most cases of dandruff can be easily treated with specialized shampoos.
Some rare cases may be caused by overusing products such as gel or hairspray.
Those affected by dandruff find that it can cause social or self-esteem problems.
Treatment may be important for both physiological and psychological reasons